Liang Zhang

410B Rackley Building
Penn State University
University Park, PA 16803
Tel: 814 8633774

E-Mail: EmailAddress: hidden: you can email any NBER-related person as first underscore last at nber dot org
Institutional Affiliation: Penn State University

NBER Working Papers and Publications

December 2015Changing Faculty Employment at Four-Year Colleges and Universities in the United States
with Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Xiangmin Liu: w21827
We use panel data models to examine variations and changes over time in faculty employment at four-year colleges and universities in the United States. The share of part-time faculty among total faculty has continued to grow over the last two decades, while the share of full-time lecturers and instructors has been relatively stable. Meanwhile, the share of non-tenure track faculty among faculty with professorial ranks has been growing. Dynamic panel data models suggest that employment levels of different types of faculty respond to a variety of economic and institutional factors. Colleges and universities have increasingly employed faculty whose salaries and benefits are relatively inexpensive; the slowly deteriorating financial situations at most colleges and universities have led to an i...
June 2005Crafting A Class: The Trade Off Between Merit Scholarships and Enrolling Lower-Income Students
with Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Jared Levin: w11437
Our paper uses institutional-level panel data to testwhether an increase in the number of institutionally funded National Merit Scholarship (NMS) winners at an institution isassociated with a reduction in the number of Pell Grant recipients at the institution. We find that, other factors held constant, an increase in the share of institutionally funded NMS winners in an institution's first-year class is associated with a reduction in the share of Pell Grant recipients among the institution's undergraduate student body and that the magnitude of this relationship is larges at the institutions that enroll the greatest number of NMS students.

Published: Ehrenberg, Ronald G., Liang Zhang, and Jared M. Levin. "Crafting a Class: The Trade-Off between Merit Scholarships and Enrolling Lower-Income Students." The Review of Higher Education 29, 2 (Winter 2006): 195-211.

August 2004Do Tenured and Tenure-Track Faculty Matter?
with Ronald G. Ehrenberg: w10695
During the last two decades, there has been a significant growth in the share of faculty members at American colleges and universities that are employed in part-time or in full-time non tenure-track positions. Our study is the first to address whether the increased usage of such faculty adversely affects undergraduate students' graduation rates. Using institutional level panel data from the College Board and other sources, our econometric analyses suggest that the increased usage of these faculty types does adversely affect graduation rates of students at 4-year colleges, with the largest impact on students being felt at the public masters-level institutions.

Published: Ehrenberg, Ronald G. and Liang Zhang. "Do Tenured and Tenure-Track Faculty Matter?," Journal of Human Resources, 2005, v40(3,Summer), 647-659. citation courtesy of

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