Integration and Trade Sector
Inter-American Development Bank
1300 New York Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20577
Institutional Affiliation: Inter-American Development Bank
NBER Working Papers and Publications
|August 2008||Is the Washington Consensus Dead? Growth, Openness, and the Great Liberalization, 1970s-2000s|
with : w14264
According to the Washington Consensus, developing countries? growth would benefit from a reduction in tariffs and other barriers to trade. But a backlash against this view now suggests that trade policies have little or no impact on growth. If "getting policies right" is wrong or infeasible, this leaves only the more tenuous objective of "getting institutions right" (Easterly 2005, Rodrik 2006). However, the empirical basis for judging recent trade reforms is weak. Econometrics are mostly ad hoc; results are typically not judged against models; trade policies are poorly measured (or not measured at all, as when trade volumes are spuriously used); and the most influential studies in the literature are based on pre-1990 experience (which predates the "Great Liberalization" in developing coun...
Published: Antoni Estevadeordal & Alan M. Taylor, 2013. "Is the Washington Consensus Dead? Growth, Openness, and the Great Liberalization, 1970s–2000s," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(5), pages 1669-1690, December. citation courtesy of
|November 2002||The Rise and Fall of World Trade, 1870-1939|
with Brian Frantz, : w9318
Measured by the ratio of trade to output, the period 1870 1913 marked the birth of the first era of trade globalization and the period 1914 39 its death. What caused the boom and bust? We use an augmented gravity model to examine the gold standard, tariffs, and transport costs as determinants of trade. Until 1913 the rise of the gold standard and the fall in transport costs were the main trade-creating forces. As of 1929 the reversal was driven by higher transport costs. In the 1930s, the final collapse of the gold standard drove trade volumes even lower.
Published: Antoni Estevadeordal & Brian Frantz & Alan M. Taylor, 2003. "The Rise And Fall Of World Trade, 1870-1939," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 118(2), pages 359-407, May. citation courtesy of
|March 2002||Testing Trade Theory in Ohlin's Time|
with : w8842
An empirical tradition in international trade seeks to establish whether the predictions of factor abundance theory match present-day data. In the analysis of goods trade and factor endowments, mildly encouraging results were found by Leamer et al. But ever since the appearance of Leontief's paradox, the measured factor content of trade has always been found to be far smaller than its predicted magnitude in the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek framework, the so-called 'missing trade' mystery. We wonder if this problem was there in the theory from the beginning. This seems like a fairer test of its creators' original enterprise. We apply contemporary tests to historical data on goods and factor trade from Ohlin's time. Our analysis is set in a very different context than contemporary studies -- an era...
Published: Findlay, R., L. Jonung, and M. Lundahl (eds.) Bertil Ohlin: A Centennial Celebration, 1899–1999. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002.
|May 2001||A Century of Missing Trade?|
with : w8301
In contemporary data, the measured factor content of trade is far smaller than its predicted magnitude in the pure Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek framework, the so-called 'missing trade' mystery. We wonder if this problem has been there from the beginning: that is, we ask if the Heckscher-Ohlin theory was so much at odds with reality at its time of conception. We apply contemporary tests to historical data, focusing on the major trading zone that inspired the factor abundance theory, the Old and New Worlds of the pre-1914 'Greater Atlantic' economy. This places our analysis in a very different context than contemporary studies: an era with lower trade barriers, higher transport costs, a more skewed global distribution of the relevant factors (especially land), and comparably large productivity dive...
Published: Estevadeordal, Antoni and Alan M. Taylor. "A Century Of Missing Trade?," American Economic Review, 2002, v92(1,Mar), 383-393. citation courtesy of