The Wharton School
University of Pennsylvania
3620 Locust Walk
Philadelphia, PA 19104
NBER Program Affiliations:
NBER Affiliation: Faculty Research Fellow
Institutional Affiliation: University of Pennsylvania
NBER Working Papers and Publications
|January 2020||The "Weighty" Manufacturing Sector: Transforming Raw Materials into Physical Goods|
with Erica R. H. Fuchs, Christophe Combemale, Kate S. Whitefoot
in The Role of Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Economic Growth, Aaron Chatterji, Josh Lerner, Scott Stern, and Michael J. Andrews, editors
The manufacturing sector encompasses a diverse set of industries that are involved in the transformation of raw materials into physical goods. Over the last two decades, the U.S.’s manufacturing value added (MVA) has slightly grown, however, the U.S.’s percentage of global MVA has declined due to China’s exponential rise. The U.S.’s relatively high R&D spending on manufacturing (66% of industrial R&D) and comparatively low manufacturing value added (14%) can in part be explained by foreign multinationals’ globalization of manufacturing facilities in the last decade. As a whole, the manufacturing sector involves higher value added per capita employed, a greater proportion of the labor force with education at the high school level or below while having on average higher wages for that labor ...
|June 2018||The IT Revolution and the Globalization of R&D|
with Lee G. Branstetter, J. Bradford Jensen: w24707
Since the 1990s, R&D has become less geographically concentrated, and has seen especially fast growth in emerging markets. One of the distinguishing features of the R&D globalization phenomenon is its concentration within the software/IT domain; the increase in foreign R&D has been largely concentrated within software and IT-intensive multinationals, and new R&D destinations are also more software and IT-intensive multinationals than traditional R&D destinations. In this paper we document three important phenomena: (1) the globalization of R&D, (2) the growing importance of software and IT to firm innovation, and (3) the rise of new R&D hubs. We argue that the shortage in software/IT-related human capital resulting from the large IT- and software-biased shift in innovation drove US MNCs ab...
|The IT Revolution and the Globalization of R&D|
with Lee G. Branstetter, J. Bradford Jensen
in Innovation Policy and the Economy, Volume 19, Josh Lerner and Scott Stern, editors
Since the 1990s, R&D has not only become less geographically concentrated, but there has been especially fast growth in less developed emerging markets like China and India. One of the distinguishing features of the R&D globalization phenomenon is its concentration within the software/IT domain. The increase in foreign R&D on the firm side has been largely concentrated within software and IT-intensive multinationals. This concentration is mirrored on the country side; new R&D destinations such as India, China, and Israel look very different in the types of innovative activity being done there than older R&D destinations such as Germany, France, the UK, Canada, and Japan. In this paper we will document three important phenomena: (1) the globalization of R&D by US MNCs, (2) the growing impor...
|March 2018||Knowledge Transfer Abroad: The Role of U.S. Inventors within Global R&D Networks|
with Lee Branstetter, J. Bradford Jensen: w24453
The location of US multinational foreign R&D has shifted significantly to include emerging markets in addition to traditional Western R&D hubs, resulting in two challenges for multinationals: (1) how to transfer knowledge across geographic distances, and (2) how to facilitate learning when local knowledge sources in given technological areas are inadequate. This paper argues that to overcome these challenges, multinationals utilize home country inventors on foreign affiliate inventor teams – and in particular on teams in locations with insufficiently specialized local knowledge stocks – to facilitate knowledge transfer. Empirical analysis of a comprehensive dataset of US multinational R&D and patenting activity provides robust support for this argument. The findings have important implicat...