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NBER Working Papers and Publications
|July 2020||Effects of State COVID-19 Closure Policy on NON-COVID-19 Health Care Utilization|
with , : w27621
The U.S. health care system has experienced great pressure since early March 2020 as it pivoted to providing necessary care for COVID-19 patients. But there are signs that non-COVID-19 care use declined during this time period. We examine near real time data from a nationwide electronic healthcare records system that covers over 35 million patients to provide new evidence of how non-COVID-19 acute care and preventive/primary care have been affected during the epidemic.
Using event study and difference-in-difference models we find that state closure policies (stay-at-home or non-essential business closures) are associated with large declines in ambulatory visits, with effects differing by type of care. State closure policies reduced overall outpatient visits by about 15-16 percent within t...
|February 2020||Effect of Prescription Opioids and Prescription Opioid Control Policies on Infant Health|
with : w26749
Prescription opioid use among women of reproductive age and pregnant women is relatively common and growing prescription opioid use is associated with a commensurate increase in opioid use disorder (OUD) among pregnant women and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) among infants. In this article, we examine whether state opioid control policies affected prescription opioid use and, in turn, infant health and maternal behaviors. We conduct several types of analyses including reduced form analyses of the effect of policies on infant health and maternal behaviors, and instrumental variables analyses of the effects of prescription opioid use on infant health and maternal behaviors. Results from our analysis suggest that reductions in prescription opioid use because of state prescription opioid c...
|August 2019||Mortality and Socioeconomic Consequences of Prescription Opioids: Evidence from State Policies|
with : w26135
This article presents estimates of the effects of state prescription opioid policies on prescription opioid sales, mortality and socioeconomic outcomes of adults. Results indicate that state implementation of a “modern” PDMP is associated with decreases in opioid sales of between 5% and 20% and that pill mill laws are associated with a decrease in opioid sales of between 15% and 50%. The reductions in prescription opioid sales associated with these state policies were, in general, not associated with statistically significant effects on mortality. In the case of socioeconomic outcomes, we found consistent evidence that the adoption of a “modern” PDMP was associated with small, but statistically significant reductions in employment of 1% to 2% across all demographic groups examined; small r...